- Letter to the Editor
- Open Access
Postoperative complications of ultrasound-guided inferior alveolar nerve and maxillary nerve blocks: a retrospective study
JA Clinical Reports volume 8, Article number: 42 (2022)
To the Editor,
Recent studies have reported that ultrasound-guided trigeminal nerve blocks are effective as a postoperative analgesic method in maxillofacial surgery [1,2,3,4]. These mainly include ultrasound-guided inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANBs), also called mandibular nerve blocks, and ultrasound-guided maxillary nerve blocks (MNBs) . These nerve blocks are not widely used, and there are no reports on their associated complications. Statistical analyses of the complications are important for demonstrating the safety of a technique to facilitate a prompt response to common complications. It is also necessary to provide patients with a clear explanation regarding the risks associated with the procedure that they will undergo to obtain informed patient consent. In this study, we retrospectively investigated the rate of complications in patients who underwent ultrasound-guided IANBs and MNBs at multiple institutions.
This retrospective cohort study was conducted and reported according to the STROBE checklist. All methods were performed according to the relevant guidelines and regulations. The study was conducted across three general hospitals in Japan. This study is registered in a publicly accessible database (UMIN Clinical Trials Registry ID: UMIN000045581). We collected the data of all patients who underwent ultrasound-guided IANBs and MNBs between April 1, 2018 and March 31, 2021. Eligible patients were identified from a database of clinical records (Fig. 1). Ultrasound-guided IANBs and MNBs were performed using the extraoral approach before surgery. The local anesthesia (LA) used in all cases was ropivacaine.
The following items were considered as possible complications: LA toxicity, allergies, neuropathy, movement disorders, pain in the punctured area, infection, sensory deficits, and blood vessel damage. During the study period, 217 patients underwent ultrasound-guided IANBs and MNBs (Fig. 1). The number of patients who underwent ultrasound-guided IANBs (IANB group) was 164, and the total number of procedures was 282. The number of patients who underwent ultrasound-guided MNBs (MNB group) was 103 patients, and the total number of procedures was 167 (Tables 1 and 2). No complications were observed in both groups.
Since the ultrasound-guided approach can be performed while confirming the anatomical findings and checking the injection range, the occurrence of the aforementioned complications may be reduced. In addition, IANBs and MNBs are peripheral nerve blocks that are categorized as compartment nerve blocks. Therefore, we considered that they have a low risk of damage to the targeted nerves. To include rare complications, it is necessary to collect and analyze more data on IANBs and MNBs.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Inferior alveolar nerve block
Maxillary nerve block
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Chiono J, Raux O, Bringuier S, Sola C, Bigorre M, Capdevila X, et al. Bilateral suprazygomatic maxillary nerve block for cleft palate repair in children: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study versus placebo. Anesthesiology. 2014;120:1362–9. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000171.
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Kojima Y, Sendo R, Ohno S, Sugimura M. Ultrasound-guided inferior alveolar nerve block for trismus during dental treatment: a case report. JA Clin Rep. 2020;6:94. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40981-020-00400-0.
Kumita S, Murouchi T, Arakawa J. Ultrasound-guided maxillary and inferior alveolar nerve blocks for postoperative analgesia in gnathoplasty. Asian J Anesthesiol. 2017;55:89–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aja.2017.11.001.
The authors have no sources of funding to declare for this manuscript.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
The study was conducted at the Kagoshima University Hospital (approval number: 210003EKI), Asahi General Hospital (approval number: 2021072005), and Kagoshima City Hospital (approval number: 2021-08) in Japan. The Human Research and Ethics Committee of each hospital approved the study design. After receiving ethical approval at each hospital, the need for patient consent was waived due to the retrospective nature of the study (the Ethics Committee of Kagoshima University Hospital, the Ethics Committee of Asahi General Hospital, and the Ethics Committee of Kagoshima City Hospital).
Consent for publication
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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Cite this article
Kojima, Y., Murouchi, T., Okayama, N. et al. Postoperative complications of ultrasound-guided inferior alveolar nerve and maxillary nerve blocks: a retrospective study. JA Clin Rep 8, 42 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40981-022-00533-4
- Maxillofacial surgery
- Ultrasound-guided inferior alveolar nerve blocks
- Ultrasound-guided maxillary nerve blocks
- Local anesthetic