- Case report
- Open Access
Ventricular tachycardia observed during cesarean section in a patient without structural cardiac disease
© Nakanishi et al. 2015
- Received: 27 July 2015
- Accepted: 23 September 2015
- Published: 29 December 2015
A 32-year-old gravida 2, para 1 woman without structural cardiac disease was scheduled for her second cesarean section under combined spinal and epidural anesthesia (CSEA). She had stable hemodynamics after delivery; however, 16 min after the application of uterotonics, ventricular tachycardia (VT) with a heart rate (HR) of 150 bpm appeared. VT lasted for <30 s, and her hemodynamics remained stable. Ventricular arrhythmia frequently appeared for 3 min, and the HR at sinus rhythm was approximately 90 bpm. After the discontinuation of oxytocin, VT did not reappear. A postoperative 12-lead electrocardiogram showed first-degree atrioventricular block, but echocardiography performed 2 days later did not reveal any structural abnormalities. Autonomic nervous imbalance induced by CSEA, ephedrine, and oxytocin, as well as ergometrine may cause intraoperative VT during cesarean section in patients without structural cardiac disease.
- Ventricular tachycardia
- Cesarean section
Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is often observed during anesthesia. Arrhythmias lasting >30 s (sustained VT) may cause unstable hemodynamics and require treatment. Although there are some reports documenting the presence of VT during cesarean section, in most of these cases, VT was caused by the patients’ cardiac disease [1–3]. We report the case of non-sustained VT without structural cardiac disease under combined spinal and epidural anesthesia (CSEA) during cesarean section.
A 32-year-old gravida 2, para 1 woman, weighing 56 kg, was scheduled for a repeat cesarean section which was indicated because of a previous cesarean section 3 years back. The previous cesarean section was performed under intrathecal anesthesia with hyperbaric bupivacaine. Oxytocin (5 units) and methylergometrine maleate (0.2 mg) were administered intravenously as uterotonics after the birth. Anesthetic complications were not observed. She had also undergone resection of an ovarian cyst at 16 weeks of gestation under CSEA using hyperbaric bupivacaine and ropivacaine. Anesthetic complications were not observed, and the progress of pregnancy was uneventful. A preoperative examination conducted before the second cesarean section revealed no signs or symptoms of cardiovascular disease, and she was classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status class 1.
Ninety minutes after the appearance of VT, a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) showed sinus rhythm at a rate of 60 bpm, a PR duration of 0.215 s, and no ST changes. In comparison with the preoperative PR duration, the postoperative PR duration was longer, suggesting first-degree atrioventricular (AV) block. Methylergometrine maleate (0.4 mg) was administered intravenously for 10 h after the surgery. During the following 24-h period, continuous ECG monitoring did not reveal any ventricular rhythm. A blood test performed 18 h later revealed normal electrolyte concentrations. Echocardiography performed 2 days later showed no structural cardiac abnormalities. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 8 without complications.
Ergometrine is broadly used in coronary angiography and echocardiography for the ergonovine testing of coronary vasospasm [4, 5]. It may cause AV block and VT along with coronary vasospasm as a consequence of the ischemic impulse conduction system. In this case, ST changes were not observed. Postoperative infusion of ergometrine did not induce ventricular arrhythmia or ST changes. The rapid intraoperative infusion of ergometrine may have caused ventricular arrhythmia; however, the relationship between the coronary vasospasm and the arrhythmia in this case is unclear.
Oxytocin is also related to hemodynamics. Oxytocin-induced QTc prolongation is an indirect mechanism; however, oxytocin is known to affect the autonomic nervous nerve tone and the duration of cardiomyocyte repolarization and may induce arrhythmias . In this case, the postoperative ECG revealed normal QTc duration, which contradicted the expected finding of oxytocin-induced prolongation.
Ephedrine is a sympathomimetic that has both direct (alpha and beta receptor agonist) and indirect (release of norepinephrine from presynaptic nerve terminals) mechanisms of action. It has a slow onset of action making it difficult to titrate the dose [7, 8]. The duration of action is approximately 60 min . There is a case report of VT during general anesthesia, which is thought to have been caused by autonomic nervous imbalance because of a combination of ephedrine administration, insufficient anesthetic depth, neostigmine, and epidural block . In this case, VT appeared 25 min after the administration of ephedrine. Ephedrine administration and arrhythmia could be related.
CSEA was performed in this case, but the total dose of local anesthetics was low, and local anesthetic-related toxicity was ruled out.
Oxytocin and ergometrine were administered during the previous cesarean section without complications. Using Naranjo’s adverse drug reaction probability scale , we obtained scores of 2 for ergometrine and 4 for oxytocin, which make them possible causes for the event. Autonomic nervous imbalance induced by CSEA, ephedrine, and oxytocin, as well as ergometrine, a vasoconstrictor, may have caused the arrhythmia in this case.
Autonomic nervous imbalance induced by the combination of CSEA, ephedrine, and oxytocin, as well as ergometrine may cause VT in a patient without structural cardiac disease.
The patient’s consent to publish this case report was obtained and documented.
We would like to thank Enago (www.enago.jp) for the English language review.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
- Katsuragi S, Kamiya C, Yamanaka K, Neki R, Miyoshi T, Iwanaga N, et al. Risk factors for maternal and fetal outcome in pregnancy complicated by Ebstein anomaly. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013;209:452.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bajwa SK, Bajwa SJ, Sood A. Cardiac arrest in a case of undiagnosed dilated cardiomyopathy patient presenting for emergency cesarean section. Anesth Essays Res. 2010;4:115–8.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stocche RM, Garcia LV, Klamt JG. Anesthesia for cesarean section in a patient with familiar hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: case report. Rev Bras Anestesiol. 2007;57:665–71.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hung MJ, Cheng CW, Yang NI, Hung MY, Cherng WJ. Coronary vasospasm-induced acute coronary syndrome complicated by life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias in patients without hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease. Int J Cardiol. 2007;117:37–44.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Song JK, Park SW, Kang DH, Hong MK, Kim JJ, Lee CW, et al. Safety and clinical impact of ergonovine stress echocardiography for diagnosis of coronary vasospasm. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;35:1850–6.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Qu Y, Fang M, Gao B, Amagasu S, Crumb WJ, Vargas HM. Oxytocin does not directly alter cardiac repolarization in rabbit or human cardiac myocytes. Pharmacol Res Perspect. 2015;3, e00102.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mitra JK, Roy J, Bhattacharyya P, Yunus M, Lyngdoh NM. Changing trends in the management of hypotension following spinal anesthesia in cesarean section. J Postgrad Med. 2013;59:121–6.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nag DS, Samaddar DP, Chatterjee A, Kumar H, Dembla A. Vasopressors in obstetric anesthesia: a current perspective. World J Clin Cases. 2015;3:58–64.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hayashida M, Matsushita F, Suzuki S, Misawa K. Coronary artery spasm immediately after the long-standing operation for cancer of the tongue. Masui. 1992;41:1986–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Naranjo CA, Busto U, Sellers EM, Sandor P, Ruiz I, Roberts EA, et al. A method for estimating the probability of adverse drug reactions. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1981;30:239–45.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar