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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of women between NEL and EL groups

From: The effect of labor epidural analgesia on labor, delivery, and neonatal outcomes: a propensity score-matched analysis in a single Japanese institute

  Unmatched population (N = 2632) Propensity score-matched population (N = 436)
  NEL (N = 2406) EL (N = 226) SMD (%) p value NEL (N = 218) EL (N = 218) SMD (%) p value
Age 32.4 ± 5.7 34.9 ± 5.4 44.1 < 0.001 34.5 ± 5.6 34.7 ± 5.4 2.0 0.82
Height (cm) 158.2 ± 7.6 158.7 ± 8.8 6.5 0.39 158.5 ± 11.0 158.7 ± 8.9 1.7 0.86
Weight (kg) 63.0 ± 9.9 65.4 ± 11.0 24.0 0.001 64.8 ± 10.2 65.1 ± 10.7 3.7 0.71
Gestational week 39.5 ± 1.2 39.9 ± 1.2 33.3 < 0.001 39.8 ± 1.1 39.9 ± 1.2 5.8 0.55
Parity    − 12.8 0.07    − 7.3 0.30
 0 894 (37.2) 102 (45.1)    92 (42.2) 99 (45.4)   
 1 753 (31.3) 66 (29.2)    57 (25.2) 63 (28.9)   
 2 435 (18.1) 27 (11.9)    37 (16.4) 25 (11.5)   
 > 3 320 (13.3) 31 (13.7)    30 (13.3) 31 (13.7)   
Gravidity    − 32.0 < 0.001    1.4 0.22
 0 1239 (51.5) 163 (72.1)    146 (67.0) 155 (71.1)   
 1 818 (34.0) 41 (18.1)    54 (24.8) 41 (18.8)   
 2 263(10.9) 15 (6.6)    13 (6.0) 15 (6.9)   
 > 3 84 (3.5) 7 (3.1)    3 (1.4) 7 (3.2)   
Complications
 Psychiatric disorder 149 (6.2) 34 (15.0) 1.3 < 0.001 31 (14.2) 29 (13.3) 0.13 0.89
 Neurological disorder 32 (1.3) 7 (3.1) 6.8 0.07 5 (2.3) 6 (2.8) − 0.23 0.76
 Hypertension 49 (2.0) 11 (4.9) 4.1 0.006     
 Asthma 190 (7.9) 20 (8.8) 2.5 0.61 13 (6.0) 19 (8.7) − 1.6 0.36
 Hyperthyroidism 190 (7.9) 25 (11.1) 2.0 0.10 24 (11.0) 25 (11.5) − 0.10 0.99
 Myoma 236 (9.8) 21 (9.3) 2.5 0.81 19 (8.7) 20 (9.2) − 0.15 0.88
 PIH 112 (4.7) 14 (6.2) 3.6 0.30 14 (6.4) 14 (6.4) 0 1.00
 GDM 190 (7.9) 20 (8.8) 2.5 0.61 24 (11.0) 18 (8.3) 0.80 0.33
 FGR 161 (6.7) 6 (2.7) 9.7 0.02 9 (4.1) 6 (2.8) 3.6 0.60
 Abortion 88 (3.7) 15 (6.6) 3.2 0.045 19 (8.7) 13 (6.0) 1.4 0.36
 TPD 142 (5.9) 8 (3.5) 7.0 0.18 9 (4.1) 8 (3.7) 0.87 1.00
 CHD 161 (6.7) 6 (2.7) 9.7 0.02 21 (9.6) 26 (11.9) − 0.53 0.54
 Placenta 56 (2.3) 5 (2.2) 11.3 1.00 5 (2.3) 4 (1.8) 3.6 1.00
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or cases (percentage). All the variables are adjusted to achieve SMR less than 10% to reduce intergroup differences
  2. NEL non-epidural labor group, EL epidural labor group, SMD standard mean difference, PIH pregnancy-induced hypertension, GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, FRG fetus growth reduction, TPD threatened preterm delivery, CHD congenital heart disease, Placenta low lying placenta or placenta previa