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Table 1 Results of manual muscle testing

From: Emergency operation for spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma in a patient with severe back pain, which made it difficult to evaluate neurological deficits: a case report

Muscle Right Left
Iliopsoas muscle 4− 4
Quadriceps muscle 4+ 5−
Tibialis anterior muscle 4 5−
Extensor hallucis longus muscle 4 4
Extensor digitorum muscle 4 4
Gastrocnemius muscle 5 5
Flexor hallucis longus muscle 5− 5
Flexor digitorum longus muscle 5 5
  1. 5 holds test position against maximal resistance, 5− holds test position against slight to maximal resistance, 4+ holds test position against moderate to strong pressure, 4 holds test position against moderate resistance, 4− holds test position against slight to moderate pressure