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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the patients

From: Effects of glucose-insulin infusion during major oral and maxillofacial surgery on postoperative complications and outcomes

  Control group
(N = 20)
GI group
(N = 10)
P value
Age (years) 72.7 ± 8.4 77.0 ± 8.2 0.2010
Sex (M/F) 12/8 7/3 0.5891
Weight (kg) 52.0 ± 8.0 50.1 ± 12.3 0.6171
BMI (kg/m2) 21.4 ± 2.5 20.3 ± 3.6 0.3147
SBP (mmHg) 132.6 ± 21.9 130.2 ± 12.3 0.7468
DBP (mmHg) 70.0 ± 9.7 71.7 ± 6.9 0.6259
HR (/min) 70.3 ± 9.4 71.0 ± 6.1 0.8453
Hypertension 13 (65.0%) 4 (40.0%) 0.1928
Dyslipidemia 6 (30.0%) 1 (10.0%) 0.1976
Current or past smoking 9 (45.0%) 2 (20.0%) 0.1685
Fasting plasma glucose (g/dL) 90.2 ± 10.4 90.8 ± 8.3 0.8894
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 111.5 ± 56.7 83.1 ± 30.8 0.1522
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 188.4 ± 32.8 185.5 ± 31.6 0.8194
BUN (mg/dL) 14.0 ± 4.9 16.9 ± 4.0 0.1266
Serum creatinine (mg/dL) 0.72 ± 0.2 0.70 ± 0.1 0.8518
eGFR (mL/min/1.73m2) 79.7 ± 15.5 78.0 ± 19.1 0.8156
Duration of operation (min) 744.3 ± 168.3 709.8 ± 167.6 0.6004
Duration of anesthesia 903.3 ± 158.4 845.0 ± 178.2 0.3695
Total infusion (mL) 4307 ± 970 3759 ± 1284 0.2015
Blood transfusion (mL) 192.0 ± 277.0 280.0 ± 329.3 0.4474
Intraoperative blood loss (mL) 470.3 ± 285.4 428.5 ± 313.1 0.7165
Mean infusion rate of glucose during surgery (mg/kg/h) 29.6 ± 17.4 68.0 ± 14.8 < 0.0001*
Mean infusion rate of insulin during surgery (mU/kg/h) 0.2 ± 1.2 31.5 ± 13.5 < 0.0001*
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± SD
  2. GI glucose-insulin, BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HR heart rate, BUN blood urea nitrogen, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate
  3. *P < 0.05 compared between the groups